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When Cossacks violently broke up a demonstration in St Petersburg, with many deaths, the country saw widespread revolts. Reasons for the February Revolution, 1917 Tsar Nicholas II was a poor leader. Tsar Nicholas II ‘indulged in a fantasy of absolute power,’ and he believed that God had appointed him to the throne. The Policy of Russification: Czar Alexander III was not only a despotic ruler but he also followed the … A new industrial class of workers was emerging, and society was becoming increasingly urbanized. Russia invaded Prussia in 1914, but after some initial success, was defeated. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. On July 17, 1918, when White army forces approached the area, the tsar and his entire family were slaughtered to prevent their rescue. The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. However, this did not make the Russian Revolution inevitable. Workers and soldiers spontaneously revolt, demanding the Soviets or the Bolsheviks take power. In countries like Russia, where Eastern Orthodoxy was the dominant religion, dates were reckoned according to the Julian calendar. Corrections? However, he was increasingly unable to halt Russia’s slide into political, economic, and military chaos, and his party suffered a major split as the left wing broke from the Socialist Revolutionary Party. A brief description about this is given below. Russian Revolution, also called Russian Revolution of 1917, two revolutions in 1917, the first of which, in February (March, New Style), overthrew the imperial government and the second of which, in October (November), placed the Bolsheviks in power. Many factors caused the Russian Revolution. One reason was that radical socialists increasingly dominated the soviet movement. In three years of war Russia had mobilized roughly 10 percent of its entire population…, One of the turning points in the struggle for power was the attempt by Gen. Lavr Kornilov, who had been appointed commander in chief, to take control of Petrograd in August 1917 and wipe out the soviet. The three major causes of the Russian Revolution were Russia’s participation in World War I, an unstable government and Vladimir Lenin. Only the aristocracy and the elite supported the Tsarist government and just out of self-interest. Peasants, workers, and soldiers finally rose up after the enormous and largely pointless slaughter of World War I destroyed Russia’s economy as well as its prestige as a European power. On March 15, 1917, Nicholas II abdicated the throne. The 1917 February revolution began as a series of protests at the situation in Russia, which included encroaching famine and was largely a result of the aforementioned poor decision-making on the Tsar Nicholas' part. The Russian Revolution caused the encounter of labors and people. However, this class was impoverished and lived and worked in appalling conditions. The Tsar refused to enter into peace negotiations with the Central Powers, despite several defeats on the Eastern Front and ordinary people's suffering. The then prevailing condition of Russia was largely responsible for the revolution. The next day the world was amazed to hear of the first Communist government in history. 17. On October 24–25 (November 6–7) the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points. At the First All-Russian Congress of Soviets, convened on June 3 (June 16), the Socialist Revolutionaries were the largest single bloc, followed by the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks. On February 23, 1917, an unseasonably warm day, women at the Vyborg cotton mills in the Russian city of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) … July 4th: The ‘July Days’ uprising in Petrograd. … The Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets, which convened in Petrograd simultaneously with the coup, approved the formation of a new government composed mainly of Bolshevik commissars. A Provisional Government that claimed to represent the workers and the peasants took power. A series of strikes were staged in St. Petersburg, and the Tsar ordered the army to break the strikes. Russia’s economic growth did create a new middle class. Autocratic Rule of the Czars: Czar Alexander II brought some reforms in Russia and became famous among all. The Russian Revolution 1917 can be compared to Julius Caesar, because of the overthrowing of the government, people fighting over food shortages, killed most of Russia’s army, suffering in … This parliament then limited his powers. A Siberian holy man called Rasputin, gained great influence with the Tsar and his family, as he claimed to have the ability to heal the crown prince’s hemophilia. The first factor that led to the 1917 Russian Revolution and the communist government that followed was Russia’s participation in World War I. This was to prove fatal. However, only after a brutal civil war resulted in millions of deaths that the Communist were able to take full control of Russia. [8] The authority of the Tsar ebbed away, and he was forced to abdicate. See also: Tsarist Russia 1855 – 1922 Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924 When his brother, Grand Duke Michael, refused the throne, more than 300 years of rule by the Romanov dynasty came to an end. The Russian Empire was an autocracy, where effectively the Tsar’s will was the law. Why was Germany defeated at the First Battle of the Marne (1914), Origins of World War One - Top Ten Booklist. For the sake of…, While Britain, France, Italy, Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Turkey all survived their crises of 1917 and found the will and stamina for one last year of war, Russia succumbed. Omissions? A People's Tragedy: The Russian Revolution: 1891-1924, The Origins of the Russian Revolution, 1861-1917, Passage Through Armageddon: The Russians in War and Revolution, 1914–1918, A history of modern Russia from Nicholas II to Vladimir Putin, https://dailyhistory.org/index.php?title=Why_did_the_Russian_Romanov_Dynasty_collapse_in_1917%3F&oldid=21193. Radical groups like the Bolsheviks stated that they wanted to bring an end to the war. The overwhelming cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the inefficiency and failure of the czarist regime in the World War I military effort. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Then in October, a second Russian Revolution placed the Bolsheviks as the leaders of Russia, resulting in the creation of the world's first communist country. The first revolution transferred the power of the Tsar to Duma. A scandal also made the Tsar and his family hated by many. [6] That year, the Tsar and his family were very popular, and it seemed to the revolutionaries that there would never be a revolution. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The subsequent governments were coalitions. From the time of Peter I (Peter the Great), the czardom increasingly became an autocratic bureaucracy that imposed its will on the people by force, with wanton disregard for See also: Tsarist Russia 1855 – 1922 Vladimir Lenin 1870 – 1924 This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Russian-Revolution, Alpha History - Russian Revolution timeline 1917, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe - Russian Revolutions of 1917, Russian Revolution - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Russian Revolution - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. After the turbulent period following the Russian Revolution of 1917, from 1921 onwards Kiev was an important city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and, from 1934, its capital. Start studying Russian Revolution 1917 - Causes. NB. Shortages of food and fuel were dire: the capital city, since re-named Petrograd, needed 60 railway cars of food a day but often received barely one-third this amount. 16. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, was living in exile when the … It sparked the beginning of a new era in Russia that had effects on countries around the world. Sometime in the middle of the 19th century, Russia entered a phase of internal crisis that in 1917 would culminate in revolution. They succeeded in disposing of him but it proved too little, too late. It saw the world’s first Communist government, and it led to a wave of communist-inspired revolutions around the world and, ultimately, the Cold War. However, the Russian Revolution was not unavoidable and directly resulted from the impact of the First World War on Russia. The Allies could not agree on their aims in Russia, however, and Lenin took advantage of their war-weariness. The 2,500 delegates to this soviet were chosen from factories and military units in and around Petrograd. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. Many factors caused the Russian Revolution. The Regime's repressive policies and scandals further undermined its legitimacy. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). NB. However, by 1917, the citizens did not see significant change/improvement in their lives, and once again grew dissatisfied. By autumn the Bolshevik program of “peace, land, and bread” had won the party considerable support among the hungry urban workers and the soldiers, who were already deserting from the ranks in large numbers. The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. Immediately, those who were unhappy with the existing system began to agitate for change. None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: peasant land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas, and the collapse of army morale at the front. One during 1905 and then a series of revolutions during 1917. Governmental corruption and inefficiency were rampant. Communist parties were formed on a world scale after the Russian Revolution. Ill-equipped and poorly led, Russian armies suffered catastrophic losses in campaign after campaign against German armies. Nineteen seventeen is a year that resonated through the 20th century. The autocratic Tsarist regime was unwilling to change with their society. The majority of the population were still peasants that often worked the land for wealthy landlords and endured lives of great hardship. by Neroli Leung. In 1917, two revolutions completely changed the fabric of Russia. By September the Bolsheviks and their allies, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, had overtaken the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and held majorities in both the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. A committee of the Duma appointed a Provisional Government to succeed the autocracy, but it faced a rival in the Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. By February 1917, the situation in Russia’s cities had become critical. Instead, the army mutinied and began to fraternize with the strikers. In the early 20th century, the difference between these two calendars was 13 days, so the Julian (also called Old Style) dates October 24–25 correspond to the Gregorian dates November 6–7. Riots over the scarcity of food broke out in the capital, Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), on February 24 (March 8), and, when most of the Petrograd garrison joined the revolt, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate March 2 (March 15). 5 Causes of the Russian Revolution! The causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and indicate its significance in world History ; Essay: The origin of the Russian revolution can be traced back to the dawn of the year 1917 ; Write a short note on Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme. Leon Trotsky said that the goal of socialism in Russia would not be realized without the success of the world revolution. This page was last edited on 19 November 2020, at 00:05. WWI caused the spark that ignited the revolution. Lenin organized his Bolshevik forces and decided to stage a revolt that would seize Petrograd's power (formerly known as St Petersburg). Czar Nicholas is overthrown March 15, 1917. The suffering people and the common soldiers grew impatient and demanded immediate change and, above all, peace. But this doesn't solve all of Russia's problems. The Tsar used the anniversary to demonstrate that God appointed him to rule ‘all the Russia’s. But place matters here as much as time – “place” meaning not just Russia, but Petrograd, as the imperial capital became known after “St Petersburg” was de-Germanised on the outbreak of war in 1914. However, after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, Europe was plunged into war. The revolution was the culmination of a long period of repression and unrest. 1917 saw two distinct revolutions in Russia: the overthrow of the Tsarist regime and formation of the Provisional Government ( February Revolution), and the October Revolution in which the Bolsheviks overthrew the Provisional Government. Aleksandr Kerensky, the prime…. This was exacerbated by corruption in the government and a scarcity of food that caused riots to break out first in the capital city of Petrograd and then in other cities. The Provisional Government was unable to countermand the order. Food supplies became scarce, and poverty spread across Russia. In 1917 Lenin returned to Russia from exile with German help. Bloody Sunday in 1905 and the Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War both helped lead to the 1917 revolution. The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: it showed Russia was no longer a military match for the nations of central and western Europe, and it hopelessly disrupted the economy. Although a previous coup attempt (the July Days) had failed, the time now seemed ripe. However, following the Tsarist government's collapse, many local committees are known as Soviets and took power all over Russia. The Russian Revolution was, while a huge economic, social, and political change, the result of a number of different factors that built up over time, including economic, military, and political circumstances. By the 18th century, most countries in Europe had adopted the Gregorian calendar. [7] By 1917, the Russian people were war-weary, and strikes became very common. In December 1916, a group of aristocrats attempted to ‘save’ the monarchy from Rasputin by murdering him. Workers’ Rights Issues The emancipation of the serfs led to a dramatic increase in population in Russian cities, as people moved away from the countryside to urban areas. The Regime's repressive policies and scandals further undermined its legitimacy. The Russian Revolution 1917 can be compared to Julius Caesar, because of the overthrowing of the government, people fighting over food shortages, killed most of Russia’s army, suffering in … The war on the Eastern Front became bogged down in trench warfare. [5] The economy improved after 1905, and the Tsar began to win back some support. Nicholas, his family, and their loyal retainers were detained by the provisional government and were eventually moved to Yekaterinburg. Russia was and is a vast and diverse country with a huge multi-ethnic population. The event became known as the October Revolution. [1] The Tsarist government repressed any signs of organized dissent, and as a result, there were many political prisoners. The catalyst for the revolution was the First World War. The suffering people and the common soldiers grew impatient and demanded immed… by means of revolution). Russian soldiers began deserting, and the army was close to defeat. The Russian Revolution of 1917 popularly known as the Bolshevik Revolution is one of the most significant events in the history of the world and ranks in importance in the category of the French Revolution. On March 13, 1881, one of the most reformist Russian tsars since the time of Peter the Great (1672-1725) fell victim to assassination by revolutionaries from the Narodnaya Volya. Many of the Soviets were dominated by the Bolsheviks or Communists loyal to their exiled leader Lenin. Corruption and inefficiency were widespread in the imperial government, and ethnic minorities were eager to escape Russian domination. This became known as the October Revolution.[9]. First, the February Russian Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and established a Provisional Government. The October Revolution saw Vladimir Lenin’s Bolsheviks seize power at the expense of more moderate social democrats (Mensheviks) and conservative “Whites.” Russia’s former allies, who were still fighting in World War I, soon identified the Bolsheviks as a threat equal to that of Germany, and they dispatched troops to Russia. Essentially, the lives of most Russians became intolerable. What caused the October 1917 Russian Revolution? The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). 1, which directed the military to obey only the orders of the Soviet and not those of the Provisional Government. Meanwhile, soviets on the Petrograd model, in far closer contact with the sentiments of the people than the Provisional Government was, had been organized in cities and major towns and in the army. The autocratic Tsarist regime that was unwilling to change with their society. In these soviets, “defeatist” sentiment, favouring Russian withdrawal from the war on almost any terms, was growing. In March 1917, the Tsar lost control first of the streets, then of the soldiers, and finally of the Duma, resulting in his forced abdication on 15 March 1917. One day before his assassination, the Tsar approved a constitutional reform which, according to most scholars, would probably lead to the formation of a national assembly or the Duma. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. The Tsarist government became very unpopular. Inflation had been so severe through 1916 that the roub… The Tsar promised reforms, including land reform, and vowed to respect the constitution. The overwhelming cause of the Russian Revolution of 1917 was the inefficiency and failure of the czarist regime in the World War I military effort. In 1917, this decay finally produced a revolution, sweeping the old system away. The catalyst for the revolution was the First World War. The main causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 were the poverty of the peasant class, the rise of the urban industrial class, the antiquated and oppressed military, a growing intellectual movement, and the inefficiency and autocracy of the Tsarist regime. The October Revolution, also known as the Great October Socialist Revolution, as the official term in the Soviet Union, the Bolshevik Coup, the Bolshevik Revolution, the October Uprising, the October Coup or Red October, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolshevik Party of Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917–1923. Both refuse and the rebellion is crushed by government troops.July 8th: The Petrograd uprising causes the liberal coalition in the Provisional Government to collapse. But it was the government’s inefficient prosecution of World War I that finally provided the challenge the old regime could not meet. Workers’ Rights Issues The emancipation of the serfs led to a dramatic increase in population in Russian cities, as people moved away from the countryside to urban areas. None of the events discussed below caused the Russian Revolution but each of them brought the country one step closer to the boiling point. However, radicals were unhappy with the situation and plotted revolution, either in Russia or in exile, such as Lenin, the Bolshevik Party of Communists in Switzerland. It accentuated the tensions in Russian society and unleashed forces that Romanov regime could not control. Russian Revolution, violent upheaval in Russia in 1917 that overthrew the czarist It also fought campaigns against the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires. The Revolution is often inevitable because of the unequal nature of Russian society and its undemocratic political system. Russia endured hefty casualties, and it placed a great strain on its resources. In the years following, Nicholas II failed to implement meaningful reforms, although some ‘real and positive changes. Politically, the people of Russia resented the autocracy of Tsar Nicholas II and the corrupt and anachronistic elements in his government. Why did the revolution occur: There were 2 major revolutions in Russia. The period after emancipation was the first time the lower classes of Russia had been free to […] The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. By February 1917, the situation was unbearable for the average Russian soldier and citizens. The industrial revolution reached Russia significantly later than the rest of Europe. The revolution ultimately led to the establishment of the future Soviet Union as an ideocracy; however, the establishment of such a state came as an ideological paradox, as Marx's ideals of how a socialist state ought to be created were based on the formation being natural and not artificially incited (i.e. Sparked the beginning of a new industrial class of workers was emerging, and spread. Change with their society just out of self-interest government and were eventually moved to Yekaterinburg helped lead to war. 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