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A revolutionary wavecaused by the Russian Revolution lasted until 1923… This parliament then limited his powers. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. None of the events discussed below caused the Russian Revolution but each of them brought the country one step closer to the boiling point. The first revolution transferred the power of the Tsar to Duma. By 1917 the bond between the tsar and most of the Russian people had been broken. Shortages of food and fuel were dire: the capital city, since re-named Petrograd, needed 60 railway cars of food a day but often received barely one-third this amount. In three years of war Russia had mobilized roughly 10 percent of its entire population…, One of the turning points in the struggle for power was the attempt by Gen. Lavr Kornilov, who had been appointed commander in chief, to take control of Petrograd in August 1917 and wipe out the soviet. The period after emancipation was the first time the lower classes of Russia had been free to […] The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. However, the leader of the Provisional Government, Alexander Kerensky, refused to compromise. The 2,500 delegates to this soviet were chosen from factories and military units in and around Petrograd. The period after emancipation was the first time the lower classes of Russia had been free to […] By February 1917, the situation was unbearable for the average Russian soldier and citizens. They often refused to recognize the authority of the Provisional Government. The Provisional government wanted to continue with the war, which made it very unpopular with many, especially the Soviets. The dates used are those of the Julian Calendar, which was in use in Russia at the time of the Russian Revolution. Instead, the army mutinied and began to fraternize with the strikers. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. But it was the government’s inefficient prosecution of World War I that finally provided the challenge the old regime could not meet. Workers’ Rights Issues The emancipation of the serfs led to a dramatic increase in population in Russian cities, as people moved away from the countryside to urban areas. However, after the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, Europe was plunged into war. In the early 20th century, the difference between these two calendars was 13 days, so the Julian (also called Old Style) dates October 24–25 correspond to the Gregorian dates November 6–7. The suffering people and the common soldiers grew impatient and demanded immediate change and, above all, peace. It saw the world’s first Communist government, and it led to a wave of communist-inspired revolutions around the world and, ultimately, the Cold War. WWI caused the spark that ignited the revolution. The causes of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and indicate its significance in world History ; Essay: The origin of the Russian revolution can be traced back to the dawn of the year 1917 ; Write a short note on Stalin’s Collectivisation Programme. One day before his assassination, the Tsar approved a constitutional reform which, according to most scholars, would probably lead to the formation of a national assembly or the Duma. Essentially, the lives of most Russians became intolerable. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, leader of the Bolsheviks, was living in exile when the … Kerensky became head of the Provisional Government in July and put down a coup attempted by army commander in chief Lavr Georgiyevich Kornilov (according to some historians, Kerensky may have initially plotted with Kornilov in the hope of gaining control over the Petrograd Soviet). Lenin Returns From Exile. However, this class was excluded from the political system and resented the Tsar’s restrictions on its political and personal freedoms. What caused the October 1917 Russian Revolution? None of them, however, was able to cope adequately with the major problems afflicting the country: peasant land seizures, nationalist independence movements in non-Russian areas, and the collapse of army morale at the front. The industrial workers and the peasants did not benefit from the economic expansion in any way. However, this class was impoverished and lived and worked in appalling conditions. The autocratic Tsarist regime that was unwilling to change with their society. In December 1916, a group of aristocrats attempted to ‘save’ the monarchy from Rasputin by murdering him. In the years following, Nicholas II failed to implement meaningful reforms, although some ‘real and positive changes. Immediately, those who were unhappy with the existing system began to agitate for change. The three major causes of the Russian Revolution were Russia’s participation in World War I, an unstable government and Vladimir Lenin. In these soviets, “defeatist” sentiment, favouring Russian withdrawal from the war on almost any terms, was growing. But while the Provisional Government’s power waned, that of the soviets was increasing, as was the Bolsheviks’ influence within them. The events of the revolution were a direct result of the growing conflict in World War I, but the significance of an empire collapsing and a people rising up extends beyond the war effort. However, this did not make the Russian Revolution inevitable. Although there were a large number of events that culminated in the October 1917 Revolution, I have chosen to focus solely on those within the 20th century. Riots over the scarcity of food broke out in the capital, Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg), on February 24 (March 8), and, when most of the Petrograd garrison joined the revolt, Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate March 2 (March 15). The subsequent governments were coalitions. First, the February Russian Revolution toppled the Russian monarchy and established a Provisional Government. The Russian Empire was an autocracy, where effectively the Tsar’s will was the law. [8] The authority of the Tsar ebbed away, and he was forced to abdicate. This became known as the October Revolution.[9]. Many factors caused the Russian Revolution. On October 24–25 (November 6–7) the Bolsheviks and Left Socialist Revolutionaries staged a nearly bloodless coup, occupying government buildings, telegraph stations, and other strategic points. The autocratic Tsarist regime was unwilling to change with their society. There had already been too many nights of madness in 1917 as the Russian Revolution rocked Petrograd (renamed from St. Petersburg at the onset of World War I … The war made revolution inevitable in two ways: it showed Russia was no longer a military match for the nations of central and western Europe, and it hopelessly disrupted the economy. By September the Bolsheviks and their allies, the Left Socialist Revolutionaries, had overtaken the Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviks and held majorities in both the Petrograd and Moscow soviets. On March 15, 1917, Nicholas II abdicated the throne. by means of revolution). On February 23, 1917, an unseasonably warm day, women at the Vyborg cotton mills in the Russian city of Petrograd (formerly St. Petersburg) … The Soviet soon proved that it had greater authority than the Provisional Government, which sought to continue Russia’s participation in the European war. Start studying Russian Revolution 1917 - Causes. From the time of Peter I (Peter the Great), the czardom increasingly became an autocratic bureaucracy that imposed its will on the people by force, with wanton disregard for The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time). They succeeded in disposing of him but it proved too little, too late. Russia was changing in the early years of the twentieth century. [4] This managed to appease the revolutionaries, and order and calm were restored. The first government was composed entirely of liberal ministers, with the exception of the Socialist Revolutionary Aleksandr F. Kerensky. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/event/Russian-Revolution, Alpha History - Russian Revolution timeline 1917, The YIVO Encyclopedia of Jews in Eastern Europe - Russian Revolutions of 1917, Russian Revolution - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Russian Revolution - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), Petrograd Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ Deputies. The Russian Revolution of 1917 had people that would cause riots during the war. When Cossacks violently broke up a demonstration in St Petersburg, with many deaths, the country saw widespread revolts. Many of the Soviets were dominated by the Bolsheviks or Communists loyal to their exiled leader Lenin. However, following the Tsarist government's collapse, many local committees are known as Soviets and took power all over Russia. By the 18th century, most countries in Europe had adopted the Gregorian calendar. The Russian Revolution 1917 can be compared to Julius Caesar, because of the overthrowing of the government, people fighting over food shortages, killed most of Russia’s army, suffering in …

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